The most importance Ts in hunting: special references from Indonesian New Guinea


Freddy Pattiselanno (Animal Science Laboratory FPPK UNIPA Manokwari)

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Technique

  • Traditional hunting techniques are highly accommodated (spear, trap, arrow and bow, dog)
  • Weapons are mostly constructed using forest’s materials such as elastic plants, bamboo, plant’s leaves and fibres
  • Combination of more than one technique is usually used in performing hunting


Target

  • Cultural reasons have been highly concerned in selecting hunting target
  • Some factors have been recognised to be the limitation in selecting hunting target for instance, religious or cultural symbol, ancestor originated and dangerous
  • Target are different among ethnic groups, because taboo consideration is not similar from one to another clan or ethnic group

Tenure

  • Tenure has been regulated by clan/tribes and must be respected
  • Hunting can only be performed in clan/tribe’s tenure
  • To some extends outsider are allowed to hunt in the clan’s tenure, but must first be authorized (as a symbol they agree to the community regulation). Usually they have to pay for the endowment or compensate by sharing hunting results with landowners
  • Sacred forests where hunting is not allowed have been recognised

Timing

  • Seasonal hunting have a long history been acknowledged
  • Principally, its similar to traditional fallow rotation systems
  • Seasons are mostly related to the nature phenomenon such as fruit seasons and weather
  • Timing is also related to non-hunters activities, for example farmers or fishermen, those who perform hunting as side activities

Take

  • Hunting take is not regulated yet
  • Some factors influence hunting take for example: the need of huge amount of meat for particular celebration such as wedding, death, religion or national celebration
  • Available meat or food is more often considered on hunting take

Identified threats to the most important Ts

  • Various types of land conversion including mining operation, agricultural plantation, new road connection and other development aspects that are not ecologically friendly
  • Rapid increase of human population in the rural sites
  • Shifting from traditional to more advanced hunting techniques
  • Link to informal wild meat market

Notes from field works at different places of Indonesian New Guinea

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